Evidence-based Best Practice
Evidence-Based Best Practice: Clubhouse Model Research
The International Clubhouse Model is an evidence-based best practice in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration National Registry.
The Clubhouse Program of Research coordinates and conducts model research.
Outcomes from Clubhouse participation include:
Higher rates of employment, with longer on-the-job tenure for members engaging in Clubhouse Transitional Employment 1
The model is cost effective compared to other mental healthcare approaches (The cost of Clubhouses estimated to be one-third of the cost of the IPS model, about half the annual costs of community mental health centers and substantially less than the ACT model.) 2
A significant decrease in the number of hospitalizations as a result of membership in a Clubhouse program. 3
Reduced incarcerations, with criminal justice system involvement substantially diminished during and after Clubhouse psychosocial program membership. 4
Improved well being compared with individuals receiving psychiatric services without Clubhouse membership. Clubhouse members were significantly more likely to report that they had close friendships and someone they could rely on when they needed help. 5
A recent study suggests that service systems should prioritize services that offer ongoing social supports like Clubhouses, as they enhance mental and physical health by reducing disconnectedness. 6
¹Sources: ¹ Macias, Kinney and Rodican (1995). ² McKay, Yates, and Johnsen (2005); IPS model reported by Clark et al (1998); ACT model reported by Macias et al (2001). ³ De Masso, Avi-Itzak and Obler (2001). 4 Johnson and Hickey (1999). 5 Warner, Huxley and Berg (1999). 6 Leff and colleagues (2004).